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DUPLEX & SUPER DUPLEX STEEL

Super Duplex Stainless Steel – F55 / S32760 / 1.4501


Bar Specifications
Uns Type Ams Astm Federal Characteristics
S32760 Super Duplex - A-276
A-314
A-479
- Similar to 32750 with slight differences, competes strongly with super austenitic grades.

1.4462 Duplex, Duplex Pipe SupplierSAGAR STEEL’S based manufacturing & supplier specialize in no-compromise manufacture using state of the art CNC equipment, and the finest steels available.

We are also a very large stockholder of hot work tool steels, stainless steels (440c / 1.4125 / 4125 / X105CrMo17), duplex stainless steel (ASTM A182 A276 / AISI / F51 EN / DIN (Werkstoff) 1.4462 and X2CrNiMoN22-5-3, UNS 31803 / S31803 / S32205, Afnor Z2CND22-5Az, BS318S13, SS2377, BS332C15, EN (10283) 1.4770, branded steel SAF2205, URANUS 45N, FALC223) and now Super Duplex stainless steel conforming to ASTM / AISI / F55 in round bar and plate / sheet form.

"Super" duplex grades have enhanced pitting and crevice corrosion resistance compared with the ordinary austenitic or duplex types. This is due to the further additions of chromium, molybdenum, and nitrogen to these grades. It also conforms, or is similar to, EN / DIN (Werkstoff) 4501 / 1.4501 / X2CrNiMoCuWN25.7.4 / UNS 32760 / S32760, UNS - ASTM A276 S32760 / AISI F55 / GOST 12Kh13 / Afnor Z3CND25.06Az and branded steel Zeron 100. Also 1.4410 / UNS S32550 / UNS S32750 / Z3CNDU25.07Az / SS2328 / X2CrNiMoCuN25.6.3 / SAF 2507 SANMAC / Uranus 52N.


Corresponding Standards:
EN/DIN 1.4501
X2CrNiMoCuWN25.7.4
AFNOR Z3CND25.06Az
UNS S32760
AISI F55 (A182 / A276 / A479)
GOST 12Kh13
BRANDS® ZERON100a
NORSOK M630 MDS D57 BAR M630 MDS D54 FORGINGS M630 MDS D55 PLATE M630 MDS D56 CASTINGS M650 Qualification of Manufacturer
OTHER NACE MR01-75 ISO 15156 EN 10088-3 PED 97/23/EC ASTM G48 Method A ASTM A751 COMPOSITION ASTM A388 U/T API 6A - PSL 4



Chemical Composition
UNS S32760

C Si Mn P S Ni Cr Mo N Cu W PRE*
Min 6 24 3 0.2 0.5 0.5 40
Max 0.03 1 1 0.03 0.01 8 26 4 0.3 1 1


Industries that use 32760 include:

•Chemical
•Desalination
•Flue gas desulfurization
•Marine
•Metallurgical
•Mining
•Oil and Gas
•Pharmaceutical
•Pollution control
•Power generation
•Pulp and Paper

Products partially or completely constructed of 32760 include:
•Absorber towers
•Cargo tanks
•Chemical tankers
•Ducting
•Engineering equipment for pollution control
•Fans
•Heat exchangers
•Manifolds
•Piping
•Pressure vessels •Risers
•Rotors
•Seawater, firewater and subsea pipe work systems
•Utility and industrial scrubber systems
•Valves
The information above is not warranted, guaranteed, or for design purposes.



Super Duplex stainless steel - F53 / S32750 / 1.4410


Corresponding Standards:

EN/DIN 1.44 X2CrNiMoN25.7.4
AFNOR Z3CND25.07Az
UNS S32750
AISI F53 (A182 / A479)
SS 2328
BRANDS® URANUS 47N(+)


Similar to:
UNS S32550 / S32520 / FERRALIUM 255-SD50 / S31260 / S39226
UNS S32760 / AISI-F55 / 1.4501
Z3CNDU25.07Az / Z3CND25.06Az
X2CrNiMoCuN25.6.3 / X2CrNiMoCuWN25.7.4
1.4507 / 1.4501
ZERON 100® URANUS52N(+)®
GOST 12Kh13


Chemistry Analysis
C MN P S SI CR NI MO CU OTHER M/NM
0.03 1.2 0.35 0.02 0.08 24.-26. 6. – 8. 3. – 5. 0.5 N .24 – .32 INQUIRE


Bar Specifications
Uns Type Ams Astm Federal Characteristics
S32750 Super Duplex - A-479 - Higher chromium and nitrogen content in Super Duplex makes it superior in corrosion resistance and enables a longer lifespan than Duplex.

Industries that use Super Duplex include:
•Chemical
•Marine
•Oil and Gas production
•Petrochemical
•Power
•Pulp and Paper
•Water desalinization

Products partially or completely constructed of Super Duplex include:
•Cargo tanks
•Fans
•Fittings
•Heat exchangers
•Hot water tanks
•Hydraulic piping
•Lifting and pulley equipment
•Propellers
•Rotors
•Shafts
•Spiral wound gaskets
•Storage vessels
•Water heaters
•Wire



Duplex stainless steel - F51 / S31803 / S32205/ 1.4462


Super Duplex Steel, Duplex 2205 In India
UNS S31803 and UNS S32205 are commonly referred to as Duplex 2205® material, whose “Duplex” name is derived from the mixed micro structure which contains about equal portions of ferrite and austenite. Developed more than 70 years ago in Sweden precisely for the sulfite paper industry where the Duplex’s were used to combat corrosion problems caused by chloride-bearing cooling waters and other aggressive chemical products. Since then there have been advancements in the composition such as the deliberate addition of nitrogen as an alloying agent, which afterwards quickly made Duplex the “workhorse” of stainless steels.

Generally, UNS S31803 has been solely designated to the Duplex 2205® grade. More recently, it has been available complying with the higher corrosion resistant composition UNS S32205. The only difference in the UNS numbers is that UNS S32205 contains a higher nitrogen content which guarantees better corrosion resistance. Composed of between 21% to 23% chromium, 4.5% to 6.5% nickel, 5% to 3.5% molybdenum, 2% manganese, and 1% silicon, with the balance being iron. Also found in Duplex Stainless Steel are trace amounts of carbon, phosphorus, sulfur and nitrogen.

Benefits of Duplex include: good weldability and workability, high resistance to corrosion fatigue, stress corrosion cracking (especially chloride stress corrosion cracking), erosion, and high energy absorption. Other advantages of Duplex are higher heat conductivity and low thermal expansion compared to austenitic stainless steels, high strength, good resistance to sulfide stress corrosion, and high resistance to pitting and crevice to corrosion. Duplex 2205® accounts for over 80% of the total usage of Duplex stainless steels throughout the world because of its superior workability as well as corrosion resistance.


Corresponding Standards:
EN/DIN 1.4462 X2CrNiMoN22.5.3
AFNOR Z2CND22.05Az
AISI - A182 F51 (329LN) / F60
UNS - ASTM A276 S31803 / S32205
BRANDS® SAF 2205 - SANMAC URANAUS 45N FALC223
SS 2377
BS (WROUGHT) 318S13
BS (CAST) 332C15
EN (10283) 1.45


Chemical Composition

C Si Mn P S Ni Cr Mo N
Min 4.5 21 2.5 0.08
Max 0.03 1 2 0.03 0.02 6.5 23 3.5 0.2


Bar Specifications
Uns Type Ams Astm Federal Characteristics
S31803/S32205 Duplex - A-276
A-479
- Roughly double the strength of standard austenitic stainless steels, designed to improve resistance in many applications such as chloride environments and sulfide stress corrosion.



Duplex Stainless Steel - SS 329 / S32900 / 1.4460


Super Dulplex SteelOne of the earliest duplex steel which is reflected in its higher permitted carbon content. Its resistance to pitting (PREN about 32) and to crevice corrosion is below that of super duplex steels, therefore use in seawater is limited. Exposure to moderate and high temperature and less rapid cooling may cause embrittlement. Accordingly, design stress values in ASME II do not extend above 260°C for S32900. Impact values are high at room temperature. However, the proportion and orientation of ferrite in welds and base material may significantly affect toughness at subzero temperatures.

UNS S32900 Chemical Composition
C(Carbon) 0.08%Max
Fe(Iron) Balance
Mn(Manganese) 1.0%Max
Si(Silicon) 0.75%Max
S(Sulphur) 0.03%Max
P(Phosphorus) 0.04%Max
Cr(Chromium) 23-28%
Ni(Nickel) 2.5-5.0%
Mo(Molybdenum) 1.0-2.0%
UNS S32900 Physical Properties
Density 7800kg/m3
Melting Range 1450-1510°C
UNS S32900 Mechanical Properties
Hardness Brinnel 230
Tensile Strength@Break 725Mpa/10500psi Min
Tensile Strength@Yiel 550Mpa/79800psi Min0.2%offset
Elongation@Break 25%Min in 2"

Duplex Stainless Steel 329 also conforms, or is similar to EN/DIN 1.4460 and 00Cr25Ni5Mo2 / SUS 329J1 / AISI 329 / UNS S32900 / Brands SS44 / SS 2324 / Din X8CrNiMo27-5 / ASME SA268 / ASTM A268 / ASTM A511 / SS 14 2324 / SIS 14 2324 / 453S

Duplex Stainless steel 329 can be used for heat exchangers, chemical tanks, refineries, shafts (marine, etc) pressure vessel parts, flanges, fittings & pipes for the oil and gas industries and offshore technology, paper industry, compressor parts and seawater desalination plants amongst many other applications.

Machining performance
Download UNS S32900 the mechanical properties of the report, the report provides detailed performance analysis and application.

Principal Design Features
One of the most widely used precipitation hardening grades in the business. While soft and ductile in the solution annealed condition, it is capable of high properties with a single precipitation or aging treatment. Characterized by good corrosion resistance, high harness, toughness and strength.

Machinability
Long, gummy chips characterize this alloys machinability. It can be machined in the annealed condition, however condition H1150M will yield best results. Post machining solution treatment of parts will be required prior to final hardening if machining in this condition.

Heat Treatment
CONDITION A--Soak at 1900 F (1038 C) for 30 minutes and cool below 60 F (16 C) for complete martensite transformation. CONDITION H 950- Treat Condition A material at 900 F(482 C) for 1 hour, air cool.. CONDITION H925, H1025, H1075, H1100, H1150- Soak solution treated material for 4 hours at specified temperature, air cool, CONDITION H1150M- Soak solution treated material at 1400 F (760 C) for 2 hours, air cool, then re-heat to 1150 F (620 C) for 4 hours and air cool.

Welding
Successfully welded by common fusion and resistance methods, this alloy should not be joined by oxyacetylene welding. AWS E/ER630 filler metal is recommended if required.

Forging
Soak for 1 hour at 2150 F (1177 C) prior to forging. Do not work below 1850 F (1010 C). Post-work solution treatment is required prior to final hardening.



Super Duplex Stainless Steel Zeron® 100 / S32760


Forms of Zeron 100, super duplex stainless steel available at Mega Mex

  • Sheet
  • Plate
  • Bar
  • Pipe
  • Welding Products

ASTM Specifications

Pipe & Tube

Sheet/Plate

Bar

A790, A928, A789

A240

A276

     

Zeron 100 Overview

Zeron 100, super duplex stainless steel, is a highly alloyed stainless steel designed for use in aggressive environments. High strength, toughness, excellent corrosion resistance and its resistance to corrosion in a wide range of organic and inorganic acids are just a few characteristics that make this duplex stainless steel attractive to a variety of industries. Lastly, it is highly resistant to strong alkalis and resists corrosion in many non-oxidizing acids.

Usage of this super duplex stainless steel is not recommended when it involves extended exposure to temperatures greater than 572° F. This exposure causes a substantial reduction in toughness.

Notice the chemical composition of duplex 2507 and Zeron 100 are similar however; Zeron 100 contains slightly more copper and tungsten.  The copper content (min. 0.5, max 1.0) permits excellent resistance to corrosion in many non-oxidizing and mineral acids like hydrochloric and sulfuric acid.   

What are the characteristics of Zeron 100, super duplex stainless steel?

  • Guaranteed corrosion performance (PREn ≥ 40)
  • Excellent corrosion resistance in mineral acids such as hydrochloric and sulfuric
  • High resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion
  • Excellent resistance to stress corrosion cracking in both chloride and sour environments
  • High resistance to erosion corrosion and corrosion fatigue
  • Excellent mechanical properties
  • Possibility for weight reduction over austenitic, standard duplex and nickel base alloys
  • Good weldability

Chemical Composition, %

Cr

Ni

Mo

C

W

Cu

24.0-26.0

6.0-8.0

3.0-4.0

0.030 Max

0.5-1.0

0.50-1.0

N

Mn

Si

P

S

Fe

0.2-0.3

1.00 Max

1.0 Max

0.03 Max

0.01 Max

Balance

Mechanical Properties
Room Temperature, Solution Annealed Condition

Tensile Strength, ksi

.2% Yield Strength, ksi

% Elongation in 50mm

Hardness Max.

109

80

25

28 HRC

     Performance Profile

ZERON 100 was developed as a seawater resistant material for pump applications in the North Sea as a cast material. Its excellent performance, led to demand for the alloy in a wider range of product forms and the development of wrought product forms. The corrosion resistance and strength properties of ZERON 100 have led to its widespread adoption in a range of industries. Oil and gas applications include process, seawater, firewater and subsea pipework systems, with associated risers, manifolds, pressure vessels, valves and heat exchangers. Applications of ZERON® 100 (UNS S32760) in other industries include pollution control equipment such as flue gas desulfurization equipment (FGD), pulp and paper, power generation, chemical, pharmaceutical, desalination, mining, metallurgical and marine industries.

Optimized versions of ZERON 100 are available for specific applications. These include:

  • ZERON 100 FG (fastener grade) which is a strain hardened bar product available up to 2-1/2 inch diameter for high strength fasteners. ZERON® 100 FG is made to ASTM A276 condition S and also meets the tensile properties for  ASTM A193 grade B7.  It meets charpy impact toughness of 40 Joules (29.5 ft.lbf.) minimum at -50°C (-58°F).
  • ZERON 100X overalloyed weld filler for welding of ZERON 100 to itself and other stainless steels.
  • ZERON 100M matching weld filler for welding ZERON 100 components that will be post weld annealed.
  • ZERON 100HS (high strength) wire for slick line applications in oil and gas.

Applications :

  • Oil and gas industry applications
  • Pollution control
  • Pulp and paper
  • Power generation
  • Flue-gas desulfurization
  • Chemical, pharmaceutical
  • Desalination
  • Mining and mineral industries
  • Marine industries

Common Trade Names

Super Duplex Stainless, UNS S32760, F55 Duplex, EN 1.4501, 25Cr Duplex, Super Duplex

Design Stresses – Pressure Vessels (ASME)

ZERON 100 (UNS S32760) is covered for ASME Section VIII, Division 1 construction by code case 2245 and in Section III, Division 1 by Case N-564-2. It is also included in B16.5 (Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings), B16.34 (Valves - Flanged, Threaded, and Welding End), 16.47 (Large Diameter Steel Flanges: NPS 26 through NPS 60), B31.3 (process Piping).

Temp, °F

100

200

300

400

500

600

Zeron 1001

31.1 ksi

31.0 ksi

29.4 ksi

29.0 ksi

29.0 ksi

29.0 ksi

22051

25.7 ksi

25.7 ksi

24.8 ksi

23.9 ksi

23.3 ksi

23.1 ksi

AL-6XN®1

27.1 ksi

27.1 ksi

25.7 ksi

24.6 ksi

23.8 ksi

23.3 ksi

ZERON 1002

36.3 ksi

35.9 ksi

34.4 ksi

34.0 ksi

34.0 ksi

34.0 ksi

 

1 ASME Section VIII, Division 1; 2ASME B31.3

Impact Strength

ZERON® 100 has good impact strength. There is no true ductile brittle transition, just a gradual decrease in impact energy as the temperature is lowered. The impact energy varies according to product type and production route.  The impact strength of welded ZERON® 100 is slightly less than that of parent metal.

Present data suggests that 40J (30ft.lbf) is a suitable acceptance criterion for duplex stainless steels and figure 1 shows that 40J is achievable with all product forms of ZERON® 100 (UNS S32760) down to very low temperatures.  To obtain good impact toughness after welding, it requires a higher level of impact toughness in the parent material.  ZERON® 100 super duplex stainless steel base metal typically has a Charpy toughness > 70J at -50°C.

Corrosion Resistance

ZERON 100 compares favorably in chloride pitting resistance to more expensive 6% molybdenum alloys and is superior to 2205 or 316L.

Alloy

% Mo

CCCT, °F

CPT, °F

PREN

316L

2.1

< 28

68

24

2205

3.1

68

120

35

904L

4.4

75

130

36

ZERON 100

3.5

108

180

41

AL-6XN

6.2

110

172

44

625

9.0

113

-

51

C22

13

-

-

64

C-276

15.5

130

> 217

67

* CCCT - 10% FeCl3 6H20, per ASTM G 48 Practice B, CPT - 1 M NaCl, per ASTM G 150, PREN = Cr + 3.3 Mo + 16N

The copper addition in ZERON 100 is responsible for its enhanced resistance to sulfuric acid. ZERON 100 super duplex is superior to the more expensive grades such as alloy 20 or alloy 825 and is superior to duplex 2205 and 2507 super duplex at most concentrations. ZERON 100 super duplex also compares favorably to high silicon austenitic stainless steels, such as ZeCor®, SX, and Saramet in hot concentrated sulfuric acid. The iso-corrosion curves below show the 0.1 mm/year (0.004 ipy) corrosion lines for ZERON 100 super duplex and other alloys in dilute sulfuric and concentrated sulfuric acid.




SUPER DUPLEX FERRALIUM 255 / S32550


FERRINOX® 255 (UNS S32550) is a stainless steel containing 25.5% chromium, 6% nickel with significant additions of molybdenum, copper and nitrogen and a PREn (pitting resistance equivalent) of ≥40.0. The copper content of 1.6% is particularly beneficial in promoting optimum resistance to corrosion in acidic environments. The chemical composition and mechanical properties conform to the requirements of UNS S32550, 1.4507 and several oil & gas industry specifications. The microstructure is carefully controlled with a phase balance close to 50:50 austenite and ferrite with complete freedom from grain boundary carbides, sigma phase and other deleterious precipitates. Hardness is kept to a level which satisfies the requirements of NACE MR01-75 for sour service.

It should be stressed that, although the above standards form the basis for FERRINOX® 255 supply, a consistent, optimised property combination is only achieved by the targeting of a much tighter composition window and detailed knowledge, gained from long term, volume supply, of metal processing techniques and heat treatment regimes. Rigorous testing carried out on all production batches, such as ASTM G-48A at 500C to demonstrate very high pitting resistance and notch ductility testing at minus 460C to confirm sub-zero suitability, also guarantees the absence of phases potentially deleterious to ductility, corrosion resistance and weldability.

FERRINOX® 255 (UNS S32550) is categorised as a super duplex (austenitic/ferritic) stainless steel. This high performance alloy combines high mechanical strength (typically up to over 600 MPa yield strength) and good ductility with outstanding corrosion resistance to marine environments and a wide, diverse range of industrial media. These attributes result in the widespread specification of FERRINOX® 255 as an alternative to 300 series stainless steel (such as type 316), standard 22% Cr duplex steel, precipitation hardening stainless steels (typical 17/4PH) and the alloy can in some instances obviate the need to choose a much higher cost nickel based alloy

The highly attractive combination of attributes provided by FERRINOX® 255 has led to many years of successful application in Defence, Oil & Gas production, Chemicals processing, Pollution Control (FGD), Pulp & Paper Production, Architecture and Nuclear Engineering.

Chemical Requirements

   

Ni

Cr

Mo

Mn

C

Si

Fe

Max

6.5

27.0

3.9

1.50

0.04

1.00

Bal

Min

4.5

24.0

2.9

   

   

   

   

   

Principal Features of Alloy 255 Compared To 300 Series Austenitic Stainless Steels

  • Superior Corrosion Resistance
  • Pitting
  • Crevice Corrosion
  • Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking
  • General Corrosion In Many Environments
  • Good Ductility
  • High Strength-To-Weight Ratio
  • High Fatigue Strength In Marine Environments
  • Superior Abrasion and Cavitation Erosion Resistance
  • High Mechanical Strength - (over twice the yield strength of austenitic stainless steels)
  • Good Fabricability

Characteristics

Physical Properties

  • Density 0.282 lb/in
  • Specific Gravity 7.81
  • Thermal Expansion
  • Coefficient (68° to 600°F) 6.7X10^-6 in/in/°F
  • Thermal Conductivity (68°F) 105 Btu/sqr ft/hr/°F/in
  • Electrical Resisitivity (68°F) 473 Ohms/cir mil ft
  • Dynamic Modulus of Elasticity 30.5x10^6 psi

Is Stronger Than Most Competitive Alloys

Alloy

UNS

Typical Tensile
(ksi)

Typical Yeild
(ksi)

Typical Elongation
(%)

Alloy 255

S32550

126

98

30

316L

S31603

81

42

50

NiCu400

N04400

78

31

50

20Cb-3

N08020

92

47

39

2205 Duplex

S31803

112

75

32

 

Alloy Comparison

Chemistry

Alloy 316SS

Alloy 2205

Alloy 255

CR

17

22

25.3

NI

10

5

6

MO

2

3

3

CU

--

--

2

N

--

0.15

0.22

 

Fluid Flow Applications

Process

Temperature

Corrodant

Prior Material

Caffeine Production

95 °C

Cholrides

316

Waste Odor Removal

Ambient

Cholrides

--

Wet Process Phos Acid

180 °F

H 2 SO 4
Solids

317L
316L

Sour Gas Downhole
Instruments

Up to 350 °F

H 2 S Chlorides

316, 410
Nitronic 50

Waste Water Treatment

150-300 °F

Mixed Acids
Chlorides

316 FRP

Polycarbonate Production

250-300 °F

Ambient

2205

Demineralize Water

Ambient

Chlorides

PVC, Carbon
Steel, Stainless

Gold Mine Oxygen Lance
and Vent

217 °F

H 2 SO 4
Chlorides

316, C-276
600, TI

 

 

   

Tensile Data

Mechanical Property Requirements

   

Ultimate Tensile

Yield Strength (0.2% OS)

Elong.

R/A

HardnessBrinell

Min

110 KSi

80 KSi

15%

   

   

Max

   

   

   

   

297

Min

760 MPa

550 MPa

   

   

   

Max

   

   

   

   

   

   

Specifications

Form

Standard

Metal Type

UNS S32550

Bar

ASTM A479

Wire

   

Sheet

ASTM A240

Plate

ASTM A240

Fitting

  

Forging

  

Weld Wire

  

Weld Electrode

E2553

Din

1.4507

 

 

Machining

MACHINING DATA

Carbide tools are suggested
for rates better than 50% of Type 304.

Machining Type

Suggested starting rates are:

Single Point turning :

Roughing - 0.15" depth, 0.015"/rev feed -175 SFM
Finishing - 0.025" depth, 0.007"/rev feed - 200 SFM

Drilling :

1/4" Dia hole - 0.004"/rev feed - 60 SFM
1/2" Dia hole - 0.007"/rev feed - 60 SFM
3/4" Dia hole - 0.010"/rev feed - 60 SFM

Reaming :

Feed - same as drilling - 100 SFM

Side and Slot Milling :

Roughing - 0.25" depth - 0.007"/tooth feed - 125SFM
Finishing - 0.050" depth - 0.009"/tooth feed - 140SFM

These rates are for carbide tools,
Type C-2 for roughing, drilling and reaming.
Type C-3 for finishing.

   




Stainless Steel Duplex 2304 / S32304 / 1.4363


Standards :

URONORM

1.4003 X2CrNi12

AFNOR

Z3 CN 23.04 Az

DIN

W. Nr 1.4362

ASTM

A240 – UNS S32304

 

SPECIFICATIONS:

GRADE Lean Duplex | UNS S32304 | ASTM/ASME A240 |Werkstoff 1.4362

Lean duplex 2304 is a 23‰ Cr, 4‰ Nickel, Mo free duplex stainless steel (23.04). We hold stock of duplex alloys in plate, sheet, and bar from our warehouse in the UK. We often meet specialist alloy profiling requirements and are a global supplier.

The alloy lean duplex 2304 has similar corrosion resistance properties to 316L. Furthermore, its mechanical properties i.e. yield strength, are twice those of 304/316 austenitic grades. This allows the designer to save weight, particularly for properly designed pressure vessel applications.

The alloy is particularly suitable for applications covering the -50°C/+300°C (-58°F/572°F) temperature range. Lower temperatures may also be considered, but need some restrictions, particularly for welded structures.

With its duplex microstructure, low nickel and high chromium contents, the alloy has improved stress corrosion resistance properties compared to 304 and 316 austenitic grades.

Stainless steel grade Duplex 2304 is a duplex stainless steel type with a structure that is a balance of ferritic and austenitic. It has high strength and toughness, resistance to stress corrosion cracking, high thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion, and easy fabrication. It is recommended that this steel is not used in areas where the steel would be exposes to temperatures over 1058°C (570°F) for prolonged periods.

The following datasheet provides an overview of stainless steel grade Duplex 2304.

Availability :
Alloy 32304 is available as round / flat / sheet / hexagonal / plate/ square / coil / pipe & fittings.

 

Chemical Composition

The chemical composition of stainless steel grade Duplex 2304 is outlined in the following table.

Element

Content (%)

Iron, Fe

72.679

Chromium, Cr

23

Nickel, Ni

4

Molybdenum, Mo

0.20

Nitrogen, N

0.1

Carbon, C

0.02

Sulfur, S

0.001

Mechanical Properties

The mechanical properties of stainless steel grade Duplex 2304 are displayed in the following table.

Properties

Metric

Imperial

Tensile strength

≥ 600 MPa

≥ 87000 psi

Yield strength (@strain 0.200 %)

≥ 400 MPa

≥ 58000 psi

Modulus of elasticity

200 GPa

29000 ksi

Shear modulus (@temperature 20°C/ 68°F)

75.0 GPa

10900 ksi

Poisson’s ratio

0.333

0.333

Elongation at break

≥ 25 %

≥ 25 %

Hardness, Rockwell C

≤ 20.0

≤ 20.0

Hardness, Brinell

180 - 230

180 - 230

Other Designations

Equivalent materials to stainless steel grade Duplex 2304 are given below:

  • ASTM A240
  • ASTM A276
  • ASTM A480
  • ASTM A789
  • ASTM A790
  • DIN 1.4362

Manufacturing Process

Machining of stainless steel grade Duplex 2304 is performed at low speeds, and constant feeds help to reduce its tendency to work harden. This material is tougher than grade 304 and 316 stainless steels due to its long stringy chip. Chip breakers are recommended. Unlike the 300 series stainless steel, Duplex 2304 steel requires more pressure while performing forming due to its higher yield strength. Its low ductility characteristic tends to make it difficult to perform forming operations.

Welding can be performed using most of the traditional methods such as gas–tungsten arc welding (GTAW), submerged arc welding (SAW), and gas–metal arc welding (GMAW). The filler metal should be a balanced of ferrite/ austenite type like 2205 or 2304.

Applications

Stainless steel grade Duplex 2304 is used by various industries including pulp and paper, coal handling, potash, food and beverage, and waste water.

The specific applications are as follows:

  1. Bridges
  2. Storage tanks
  3. Water heaters
  4. Heat exchangers
  5. Pressure vessels
  6. Feedwater tubes
  7. Heat exchangers
  8. Flue-gas cleaning
  9. Seawater systems
  10. Desalination plants
  11. Parts for structural design
  12. Rotors, impellers and shafts
  13. Firewalls and blast walls on offshore platforms
  14. Cargo tanks and pipe systems in chemical tankers
  15. Piping