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HASTELLOY

Hastelloy® B-2 / N010665

Other common names: Alloy B-2

Super alloys are also known as high performance alloys. They contain many elements in a variety of combinations designed to provide unique material properties for specific applications. These alloys can function at very high temperatures and in severe mechanical stress environments, and also where high surface stability is required. They have high creep and oxidation resistance.

Hastelloy B2 is a solid solution strengthened, nickel-molybdenum alloy, with significant resistance to reducing environments like hydrogen chloride gas, and sulfuric, acetic and phosphoric acids. Molybdenum is the primary alloying element which provides significant corrosion resistance to reducing environments. This nickel steel alloy can be used in the as-welded condition because it resists the formation of grain-boundary carbide precipitates in the weld heat-affected zone.

This nickel alloy provides excellent resistance to hydrochloric acid at all concentrations and temperatures. In additions, Hastelloy B2 has excellent resistance to pitting, stress corrosion cracking and to knife-line and heat-affected zone attack. Alloy B2 provides resistance to pure sulfuric acid and a number of non-oxidizing acids.

Equivalent materials to HASTELLOY(r) B-2 are:

  • ASTM B333
  • ASTM B335
  • ASTM B366
  • ASTM B564
  • ASTM B619
  • ASTM B622
  • ASTM B626
  • DIN 2.4615
  • DIN 2.4617
  • GE B50T38

        

Limiting Factors of Hastelloy B2

Alloy B-2 has poor corrosion resistance to oxidizingenvironments, therefore, it is not recommended for use in oxidizing media or in the presence of ferric or cupric salts because they may cause rapid premature corrosion failure. These salts may develop when hydrochloric acid comes in contact with iron and copper. Therefore, if this alloy is used in conjunction with iron or copper piping in a system containing hydrochloric acid, the presence of these salts could cause the alloy to fail prematurely. In addition, this nickel steel alloy should not be used at temperatures between 1000° F and 1600° F because of a reduction in the ductility in the alloy.

In what forms is Hastelloy B-2 Available at SAGAR STEELS ?

  • Round Bar

What are the characteristics of Hastelloy B2?

  • Great resistance to stress corrosion cracking and pitting
  • Significant resistance to reducing conditions like hydrogen chloride, sulfuric, acetic and phosphoric acids
  • Resistance to hydrochloric acid at all concentrations and temperatures

Chemical Composition, %

Ni

Mo

Fe

C

Co

Cr

Mn

Si

Balance

26.0-30.0

2.0 max

.02 max

1.0 max

1.0 max

1.0 max

.10 max

P

S

         

         

         

         

         

         

.040 max

.030 max

         

         

         

         

         

         

In what applications is Hastelloy B-2 used?

  • Chemical processes
  • Vacuum furnaces
  • Mechanical components in reducing environments

ASTM Specifications

Pipe Smls

Pipe Welded

Tube Smls

Tube Welded

Sheet/Plate

Bar

Forging

Fitting

B622

B619

B622

B626

B333

B335

B564

B366

Mechanical Properties
Annealed Material

Product

Tensile Min. (ksi)

.2% Yield Min. (ksi)

Elongation Min.

Rod & Bar

110

51

40

Sheet/Plate

110

51

40

Welded Pipe & Tube

110

51

40

Seamless Pipe & Tube

110

45

40

         

      

Heat Treatment

HASTELLOY(r) B-2 can be solution treated at 1065°C (1950°F) and then rapidly quenched in normal conditions that require product forms to be furnished and used. In cases where bright annealed product forms such as sheet and strip are required, HASTELLOY(r) B-2 can be solution treated at 1149°C (2100°F) and then cooled in a hydrogen atmosphere so as to avoid oxidation of the bright surface.

Hot Working

HASTELLOY(r) B-2 can be hot worked.

Forging

HASTELLOY(r) B-2 can be easily forged in the temperature range of 1232-982°C (2250-1800°F).

Cold Working

HASTELLOY(r) B-2 can be cold worked.

Machinability

HASTELLOY(r) B-2 can be machined using all the traditional machining methods.

Forming

HASTELLOY(r) B-2 can be easily formed using all the conventional methods.

Welding

HASTELLOY(r) B-2 can be welded using the traditional welding methods.




Hastelloy® B-3 / N010675


Hastelloy B-3 is a nickel-molybdenum alloy with excellent resistance to pitting, corrosion, and stress-corrosion cracking plus, thermal stability superior to that of alloy B-2. In addition, this nickel steel alloy has great resistance to knife-line and heat–affected zone attack. Alloy B-3 also withstands sulfuric, acetic, formic and phosphoric acids, and other non-oxidizing media. Furthermore, this nickel alloy has excellent resistance to hydrochloric acid at all concentrations and temperatures. Hastelloy B-3’s distinguishing feature is its ability to maintain excellent ductility during transient exposures to intermediate temperatures. Such exposures are routinely experienced during heat treatments associated with fabrication.

Super alloys are also referred to as high performance alloys. They contain many elements in a variety of combinations so as to achieve the desired result. These alloys can function under very high temperatures and severe mechanical stress, and also where high surface stability is required. They have good creep and oxidation resistance. Strengthening of super alloys is performed by solid-solution hardening, work hardening, and precipitation hardening methods.

The following datasheet will provide more details about HASTELLOY B-3.

ASTM Specifications

Equivalent materials to HASTELLOY B-3 are:

  1. ASTM B333
  2. ASTM B335
  3. ASTM B366
  4. ASTM B564
  5. ASTM B619
  6. ASTM B622

       

Pipe Smls

Pipe Welded

Tube Smls

Tube Welded

Sheet/Plate

Bar

Forging

Fitting

B622

B619

B622

B626

B333

B335

B564

B366

Availability :
Alloy B3 is available as round / flat / sheet / hexagonal / plate/ square / coil / pipe & fittings.

       

Chemical Composition

The following table shows the chemical composition of HASTELLOY B-3.

Element

Content (%)

Nickel, Ni

65 min

Molybdenum, Mo

27-32

Cobalt, Co

3 max

Manganese, Mn

3 max

Tungsten, W

3 max

Iron, Fe

1-3

Chromium, Cr

1-3

Aluminum, Al

0.5 max

Copper, Cu

0.2 max

Niobium, Nb

0.2 max

Tantalum, Ta

0.2 max

Titanium, Ti

0.2 max

Vanadium, V

0.2 max

Zirconium, Zr

0.1 max

Phosphorus, P

0.03 max

Sulfur, S

0.01 max

Carbon, C

0.01 max

Physical Properties

The physical properties of HASTELLOY B-3 are outlined in the following table.

Properties

Metric

Imperial

Density

9.13 g/cm³

0.33 lb/in³

Mechanical Properties

The mechanical properties of HASTELLOY B-3 are provided below.

Properties

Metric

Imperial

Tensile strength (0.125in.)

0.88 GPa

129 ksi

Yield strength (0.125in.)

0.44 GPa

64.5 ksi

Elongation at break (0.125in.)

57.50%

57.50%

       

In what applications is Hastelloy B-3 used?

  • Chemical processes
  • Vacuum furnaces
  • Mechanical components in reducing environments

Fabrication with Hastelloy B-3

Problems associated with fabrication of alloy B-2 components should be minimized with alloy B-3 due to its improved thermal stability. A low carbon content permits alloy B-3 to be used in the as-welded condition. Hastelloy B-3 has good overall forming and welding characteristics. This alloy can be forged or otherwise hot-worked, providing that it is held at 2250° F for a sufficient amount of time to bring the entire piece to temperature. Since it is a low carbon alloy, the use of lower hot finishing temperatures may be necessary to achieve grain size control. It may also be formed by cold working. Although it does work-harden somewhat rapidly, B-3 alloy components can be made using all common cold forming techniques. All common welding techniques may be used with alloy B-3, however, oxyacetylene and submerged arc welding processes are not recommended when the fabricated item is to be used in corrosive service.





Hastelloy® X / N06002


ASTM B435, B366, B572, B619 B622, B626, B751, B775, B829
UNS Number N06002
DIN 2.4665

Other common names: Alloy X, Inconel® HX Hastelloy X is a nickel-based super alloy that possesses excellent resistance to corrosion. Additionally, it delivers strong strength characteristics at elevated temperatures-up to 2200 degrees Fahrenheit. Hastelloy X is well suited for forming and welding.

Hastelloy X is a nickel-chromium-iron-molybdenum superalloy with outstanding high temperature strength, oxidation resistance, and fabricability. Alloy X’s oxidation resistance is excellent up to 2200° F. This nickel steel alloy has also been found to be exceptionally resistant to stress-corrosion cracking in petrochemical applications. Matrix stiffening provided by the molybdenum content results in high strength in a solid-solution alloy having good fabrication characteristics. Although this nickel alloy is primarily noted for heat and oxidation resistance it also has good resistance to chloride stress-corrosion cracking, carburization, and excellent resistance to reducing or carburizing atmospheres. Two common conditions that often lead to early failure in high temperature alloys, carburization and nitriding, Hastelloy X resists.

In what forms is Hastelloy X Available at SAGAR STEELS?

  • Sheet
  • Plate
  • Bar

    

ASTM Specifications

Sheet/Plate

Bar

B435

B572

     

What are the characteristics of Hastelloy X?

  • Outstanding oxidation resistance through 2000° F
  • Resistant to carburization and nitriding
  • Excellent high temperature strength
  • Good resistance to chloride stress-corrosion cracking

Chemical Composition, %

Ni

Mo

Cr

Fe

W

Co

Mn

C

Remainder

8.0-10.0

20.5-23.0

17.0-20.0

.2-1.0

.5-2.5

1.0 max

.05-.15

P

S

Si

Al

Ti

B

Cu

  

.04 max

.03 max

1.0 max

.50 max

.15 max

.01 max

.50 max

 

In what applications is Hastelloy X used?

  1. Gas turbines
  2. Petrochemical industry
  3. Industrial furnaces
  4. Heat treating equipment
  5. Nuclear engineering
  6. Jet engine combustion chambers
  7. Aircraft cabin heaters
  8. Turbine exhaust components
  9. Gas turbine operations
  10. Petrochemical
  11. Structural components
  12. Industrial furnace

     

Alloy X is one of the most widely used nickel base superalloys for gas turbine engine combustion zone components such as transition ducts, combustor cans, spray bars and flame holders as well as in afterburners, tailpipes and cabin heaters. It is recommended for use in industrial furnace applications because it has unusual resistance to oxidizing, reducing and neutral atmospheres. Hastelloy X is also used in the chemical process industry for retorts, muffles, catalysts support grids, furnace baffles, tubing for pyrolysis operations and flash drier components.

Fabrication with Hastelloy X

Alloy X has excellent forming and welding characteristics. It can be forged and, because of its good ductility, can be cold worked. It can be welded by both manual and automatic methods including shielded metal arc, gas tungsten arc, gas metal arc and submerged arc processes. The alloy can also be resistance welded. For hot forming, the alloy should be heated to a starting temperature of 2150° F (1175°C).

ASTM Specifications

Sheet/Plate

Bar

B435

B572

Mechanical Properties of Hastelloy X

Typical short time cryogenic and elevated temperature tensile properties for Hastelloy X sheet and plate materials solution treated at 2150 to 2175°F (1177 to 1190°C) and rapidly cooled are shown below.

Temperature

0.2% Yield Strength

Ultimate Tensile Strength

Elongation Percent

°F

°C

psi

MPa

psi

MPa

-321

-196

-

-

150,200

1035

46

-108

-78

-

-

118,800

819

51

72

22

47,000

324

104,500

720

46

400

204

48,700

336

103,400

713

41

600

316

42,600

294

100,200

691

40

800

427

43,700

301

99,700

687

44

1000

538

41,500

286

94,000

648

45

1200

649

39,500

272

83,000

472

37

1400

760

37,800

261

63,100

435

37

1600

871

25,700

177

36,500

252

51

1800

982

16,000

110

22,500

155

45

2000

1093

8,000

55

13,000

90

40

2200

1204

3,700

26

5,400

37

31

     




Hastelloy® C-22 / N06022

Other common names: Alloy C22

Hastelloy C22, also known as alloy C22, is a versatile austenitic nickel-chromium-molybdenum-tungsten alloy with enhanced resistance to pitting, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. The high chromium content provides good resistance to oxidizing media while the molybdenum and tungsten content give good resistance to reducing media. This nickel steel alloy also has excellent resistance to oxidizing aqueous media including wet chlorine and mixtures containing nitric acid or oxidizing acids with chlorine ions. Other corrosives Hastelloy C-22 has resistance to are oxidizing acid chlorides, wet chlorine, formic and acetic acids, ferric and cupric chlorides, sea water, brine and many mixed or contaminated chemical solutions, both organic and inorganic. This nickel alloy also offers optimum resistance to environments where reducing and oxidizing conditions are encountered in process streams. This is beneficial in multi- purpose plants where such “upset” conditions occur frequently.

This nickel alloy resists the formation of grain-boundary precipitates in the weld heat-affected zone, thus making it suitable for most chemical process applications in the as-welded condition.

Alloy C-22 should not be used in service temperatures above 1250° F due to the formation of detrimental phases which form above this temperature.

Other Designations

Other designations that are equivalent to Hastelloy(r) C22(r) include:

  1. ASTM B366
  2. ASTM B564
  3. ASTM B574
  4. ASTM B575
  5. ASTM B619
  6. ASTM B622
  7. DIN 2.4602

   

In what forms is Hastelloy C22 Available at SAGAR STEELS?

  • Sheet
  • Plate
  • Bar
  • Pipe & Tube (welded & seamless)
  • Fittings (i.e. flanges, slip-ons, blinds, weld-necks, lapjoints, long welding necks, socket welds, elbows, tees, stub-ends, returns, caps, crosses, reducers, and pipe nipples)
  • Wire

What are the characteristics of Hastelloy C22?

  • Resistant to pitting, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking
  • Outstanding resistance to both reducing and oxidizing media
  • Excellent resistance to oxidizing aqueous media
  • Exceptional resistance to a wide variety of chemical process environments including strong oxidizers such as ferric acids, acetic anhydride, and seawater and brine solutions
  • Resists the formation of grain-boundary precipitates in the weld heat-affected zone
  • Excellent weldability

Chemical Composition, %

C

Cr

Co

Fe

Mn

Mo

Ni

P

.010 max

20-22.5

2.5 max

2.0-6.0

.50 max

12.5-14.5

Balance

.02 max

Si

S

W

V

  

  

  

  

.08 max

.02 max

2.5-3.5

.35 max

 

 

 

 

In what applications is Hastelloy C22 used?

  • Pharmaceutical industries use alloy C-22 fittings and tubing to avoid contamination caused by corrosion related failures
  • Cellophane manufacturing
  • Chlorination systems
  • Pesticide production
  • Incineration scrubber systems
  • Chemical process industry in equipment like flue gas scrubbers, chlorination systems, sulfur dioxide scrubbers, pulp and paper bleach plants, pickling systems, and nuclear fuel reprocessing
  • Waste water processing

ASTM Specifications

Pipe Smls

Pipe Welded

Tube Smls

Tube Welded

Sheet/Plate

Bar

Forging

Fitting

B622

B619

B622

B626

B575

B574

B564

B366

Mechanical Properties
Typical Room Temperature Tensile Properties of Annealed Material

Product Form

Tensile (ksi)

.2% Yield (ksi)

Elongation %

Hardness (HRb)

Plate (.25”-1.75”)

112

53

62

89

Sheet (.038”-.15”)

122

63

54

93

Bar (.50”-5.50”)

115

55

60

89

Fabrication and Heat Treatment

Machinability

Hastelloy(r) C22(r) can be machined using high-speed steel tooling. Carbide tools are used for milling or turning. Machining operations can be performed using conventional coolants.

Forming

Hastelloy(r) C22(r) can be easily hot or cold formed followed by heat treatment.

Hot Working

Hastelloy(r) C22(r) has good hot working capacity.

Cold Working

Hastelloy(r) C22(r) has cold working capacity.

Welding

Except submerged arc welding method, Hastelloy(r) C22(r) can be welded using all other welding methods.

Heat Treatment

Hastelloy(r) C22(r) is heat treated by annealing at 1122°C (2050°F) followed by quenching.

Forging

Hastelloy(r) C22(r) is hot forged at 1149°C (2100°F) followed by heat treatment.

Aging

Hastelloy(r) C22(r) is aged at 510 to 1038°C (950 to 1900°F) to increase its tensile strength and hardness. However, V-notch impact strength can be degraded if aging is done above 760°C (1400°F).

Hardening

Hastelloy(r) C22(r) cannot be hardened by heat treatment or cold working.




Hastelloy C-276 / N10276


Other common names: Alloy C276, Hastelloy C, Inconel® C-276

Hastelloy C-276 is a Nickel-Molybdenum-Chromium alloy with the addition of Tungsten, has excellent corrosion resistance in a wide range of corrosive media and is especially resistant to pitting and crevice corrosion.

 

ASTM Specifications

Pipe Smls

Pipe Welded

Tube Smls

Tube Welded

Sheet/Plate

Bar

Forging

Fitting

Wire

B622

B619

B622

B626

B575

B574

B564

B366

 

Chemical Composition of Hastelloy C-276

The compositional range for Hastelloy C-276 is provided in the table below.

Element

Content

Ni

55 %

Mo

15 - 17 %

Cr

14.5 - 16.5 %

Fe

4 - 7 %

W

3 - 4.5 %

Availability :
Alloy C 276 is available as round / flat / sheet / hexagonal / plate/ square / coil / pipe & fittings.

 

Mechanical Properties
Typical Room Temperature Tensile Properties of Annealed Material

Product Form

Tensile (ksi)

.2% Yield (ksi)

Elongation %

Bar

110.0

52.6

62

Plate

107.4

50.3

67

Sheet

115.5

54.6

60

Tube & Pipe

105.4

45.4

70

 

In what applications is Hastelloy C-276 used?

  • Pollution control stack liners, ducts, dampers, scrubbers, stack-gas reheaters, fans and fan housings
  • Flue gas desulfurization systems
  • Chemical processing components like heat exchangers, reaction vessels, evaporators, and transfer piping
  • Sour gas wells
  • Pulp and paper production
  • Waste treatment
  • Pharmaceutical and food processing equipment

Fabrication with Hastelloy C-276

Hastelloy C-276 alloy can be forged, hot-upset and impact extruded. Although the alloy tends to work-harden, you can have it successfully 

Relevant Standards

Hastelloy C-276 is covered by the following standards:

        ASTM B619

        ASTM B574

 

Equivalent Materials

Hastelloy C-276 is the tradename of Special Metals Group of Companies and equivalent to:

        W.NR 2.4819

        UNS N10276

        AWS 054