UNS S42000, commonly known as Stainless Steel 420 is the high carbon content version of Stainless Steel 410. Corrosion resistance is similar between the two, but Stainless Steel 420 additionally provides increased strength and hardness. Like Stainless Steel 410 it is also considered a “general purpose grade” including at least 12% chromium, which is enough to give it acceptable corrosion resistance. Typically, Stainless Steel 420 achieves its best corrosion resistance when the alloy is hardened and polished, or surface ground.
Industries that use 410 & 420 include:
- Food processing
- Hand tools
- Plastic molds
- Pump shafts
- Surgical instruments
- Turbine blades
- Valves/Valve components
Alloy 422 is a hardenable stainless steel designed for use at temperatures of up to 1200ºF (649ºC). Alloy 422 has good resistance to scaling and oxidation. Through heat treatment, high mechanical properties can be developed. Alloy 422 is used in applications such as compressors or steam turbines and also in aircraft parts, valves, high temperature bolting etc.
UNS - S42200
AISI - 616
AMS - 5655
ASTM A 565
DOD F 24669/7
MIL S 861
|Chemical Composition Limits|
|Alloy 422||0.20- 0.25||0.040 max||1.0 max||0.50- 1.0||0.20- 0.50||Bal||1.0||0.030 max||11.5- 13.5||0.75- 1.25||0.75- 1.25|
Alloy 422 is available as Bar (Round, Shapes)
Typical Mechanical Properties (Room Temperature)
|Test Temperature||Yield Strength 0.2%MPa||Ultimate Tensile Strength MPa||% Elongation||% Reduction of Area|
AISI Type 422 (DIN 1.4935) Mechanical properties,Our production completely according to the AISI Type 422 (DIN 1.4935) standards to meet the AISI Type 422 (DIN 1.4935) mechanical performance, can also according to the customer request, to meet the requirements of customers of AISI Type 422 (DIN 1.4935) mechanical properties.
AISI Type 422 (DIN 1.4935) Heat treatment,Our production completely according to the AISI Type 422 (DIN 1.4935) standards to meet the AISI Type 422 (DIN 1.4935) Heat treatment, can also according to the customer request, to meet the requirements of customers of AISI Type 422 (DIN 1.4935) Heat treatment.
AISI Type 422 (DIN 1.4935) Machining,Our production completely according to the AISI Type 422 (DIN 1.4935) standards to meet the AISI Type 422 (DIN 1.4935) Machining, can also according to the customer request, to meet the requirements of customers of AISI Type 422 (DIN 1.4935) Machining.
AISI Type 422 (DIN 1.4935) Welding performance,Our production completely according to the AISI Type 422 (DIN 1.4935) standards to meet the AISI Type 422 (DIN 1.4935) Welding performance, can also according to the customer request, to meet the requirements of customers of AISI Type 422 (DIN 1.4935) Welding performance.
431 is a high chromium-low nickel high hardenability Martensitic stainless steel with high strength and good corrosion resistance, as generally supplied hardened and tempered in the tensile range 850 - 1000 Mpa (condition T) Brinell range 248 - 302. Characterised by very good corrosion resistance in general atmospheric corrosive environments, good resistance to mild marine and industrial atmospheres, resistant to many organic materials, nitric acid and petroleum products coupled with high tensile and high yield strength plus excellent toughness in the hardened and tempered condition.
431 due to its excellent hardenability is capable of being through hardened up to Rc44, depending upon carbon content and section size. Small sections can be air cooled and larger sections oil quenched for maximum through hardness. Pre hardened and tempered 431 will also respond readily to nitriding achieving a typical surface hardness of over Rc65. The nitriding process however reduces the corrosion resistance and is therefore not generally recommended except for critical applications where the benefit outweighs all other considerations. Used extensively for parts requiring a combination of high tensile strength, good toughness and good corrosion resistant properties.
This heat treatable martensitic, nickel-bearing grade has the best corrosion resistance properties of all the martensitic grades. It has excellent tensile and torque strength, and good toughness, making it ideally suited to shafting and bolt applications. It can be hardened to approximately 40HRC. Because of its high yield strength, this grade is not readily cold worked and is therefore not recommended for use in operations such as cold heading, bending, deep drawing or spinning. Martensitic stainless steels are optimised for high hardness, and other properties are to some degree compromised. Fabrication must be by methods that allow for poor weldability and usually also allow for a final harden and temper heat treatment. Corrosion resistance is generally lower than the common austenitic grades, and their useful operating temperature range is limited by their loss of ductility at sub-zero temperatures and loss of strength by over-tempering at elevated temperatures.
Corrosion Resisting Alloy 4S80 / 5S80 / 6S80 7S80
- AISI 431
- T431 SS
- UNS S43100 AMS2303
- AMS-5628 HI SHEAR #115 (CHEM ONLY)
- DMS-1565 EXC. SONIC
- QQS-763 EXC HARDNESS & IZOD
|Weight %||C||Si||Mn||P+S max||Cr||Ni||Others (max)|
|4- S80 5- S80 6- S80 7- S80 Bar||0.12/0.20||1.00 max||1.00 max||0.030P 0.025S||15.00/18.00||2.00 / 3.00||
Mo 0.3 / Co 0.05 / Cu 0.3 / Nb 0.05/
Sn 0.02 / Ti 0.05 / V 0.20 / W 0.05
Heat Treatment of Stainless 431
- Process anneal at 1150° to 1225°F (621° to 663°C) before air cooling
- Harden by heating to 1800° to 1950°F (982° to 1066°C) for 30 minutes, then oil quench
- Temper by heating to 400° to 1200°F (204° to 649°C), then air cool
- Heat to 800° to 1700°F (427° to 927°C) to help eliminate stress corrosion cracking.
- Avoid intergranular corrosion by performing stress relief from 450° to 750°F (232° to 399°C)
Applications of Stainless 431
- Marine components
- Aircraft Parts and Components
- Bolts and Nuts
- Pump Shafts
- Propeller Shafts
- Valve Parts etc.
- Carbide tools recommended
- Machine with carbide tools at higher speeds than high-speed tools
- Forge and hot form from 1500° to 2150°F (816° to 1177°C)
- Easy to cold work sheet and small bars
- Extreme flanging and bending of heavy pieces at 1350° to 1550°F (732° to 843°C)
431 S43100 431S29 1.4057 X17CrNi16-2 2321 SUS 431
These comparisons are approximate only. The list is intended as a comparison of functionally similar materials not as a schedule of contractual equivalents. If exact equivalents are needed original specifications must be consulted.
Table 1. Composition ranges for 440 grade stainless steels.
|440A||min. max.||0.65 0.75||- 1.00||- 1.00||- 0.040||- 0.030||16.00 18.00||- 0.75||-||-|
|440B||min. max.||0.75 0.95||- 1.00||- 1.00||- 0.040||- 0.030||16.00 18.00||- 0.75||-||-|
|440C||min. max.||0.95 1.20||- 1.00||- 1.00||- 0.040||- 0.030||16.00 18.00||- 0.75||-||-|
Table 2. Mechanical properties of 440C grade stainless steels.
|Tempering Temperature (°C)||Tensile Strength (MPa)||Yield Strength 0.2% Proof (MPa)||Elongation (% in 50mm)||Hardness Rockwell (HR C)||Impact Charpy V (J)|
|* Annealed properties are typical for Condition A of ASTM A276 # Brinell Hardness is ASTM A276 specified maximum for annealed 440A, B and C.|
Table 3. Typical physical properties for 440 grade stainless steels.
|Grade||Density (kg/m3)||Elastic Modulus (GPa)||Mean Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (mm/m/°C)||Thermal Conductivity (W/m.K)||Specific Heat
|Electrical Resistivity (nW.m)|
|0-100°C||0-200°C||0-600°C||at 100°C||at 500°C|
Table 4. Grade specifications for 440 grade stainless steels.
|Grade||UNS No||Old British||Euronorm||Swedish SS||Japanese JIS|
|These comparisons are approximate only. The list is intended as a comparison of functionally similar materials not as a schedule of contractual equivalents. If exact equivalents are needed original specifications must be consulted.|
Table 5. Possible alternative grades to 440 stainless steel.
|Grade||Why it might be chosen instead of 440C|
|440A/B||Slightly softer and more corrosion resistant grade needed|
|440F||High machinability required, with same hardness and hardenability as 440C|
|420||Lower strength and hardness needed than any of the 440 grades|
|416||Higher machinability required, and the much lower hardness and strength is still adequate|
440c / 1.4125 / 4125 Stainless Steel. In the highly competitive world of manufacturing, sourcing high quality materials is essential. sagar steels, specialize in 'no-compromise' manufacturing using state of the art CNC equipment. We are also the India's largest independent stockholder of hot work tool steels. From the experience gained in buying high quality tool steel, Intoco have added a further steel to their range, this being a Chromium martensitic steel called 440C/1.4125/4125 Stainless Steel. Its very high carbon content is responsible for these characteristics, which makes 440C/1.4125/4125 particularly suited to such applications as ball bearings, rollers and valve parts. Din 1.4125 - X105CrMo17. AISI 440c AMS 5618/5630 UNS S44004 AFNOR Z100CD17 JIS SUS 440C UNI X102CrMo17 KU/X105CrMo17. 440C/1.4125/4125 Stainless Steel at sagar steels now hold stock in rolled/forged bar that can be cut to length as required. We now also accept customer make to order in grade aisi - 440c /din - 1.4125 / en - 4125 / uns - 440044
One of the preferred option for metal alloys chosen by almost all industries is 440C bars. These products are capable to sustain the hardness, toughness, and strength and resistance power after heat treatment given for a long time. Due to the presence of carbon content at a greater extent in these products, they exhibit excellent mechanical characteristics and are well suited for the applications as ball bearings and valve parts.
The main and single difference between 440A & 440B is in the amount of carbon content (0.60 - 0.75% and 0.75 - 0.95% respectively), the latter have lower attainable hardness but higher corrosion resistance. Although all three versions of this grade are standard grades, in practice 440C is more available than the A or B variants
Good resistance to the atmosphere, fresh water, foods, alkalies and mild acids. Best resistance in the hardened and tempered and passivated condition. A smooth polished surface also assists. The corrosion resistance of grade 440C approximates that of grade 304 in many environments.
Not recommended for use in temperatures above the relevant tempering temperature, because of reduction in mechanical properties by over-tempering.
Annealing - Full anneal - 850-900°C, slow furnace cool to about 600°C and then air cool. Sub-critical Annealing - 735-785°C and slow furnace cool.
Hardening - Heat to 1010-1065°C, followed by quenching in warm oil or air. Oil quenching is necessary for heavy sections. Immediately temper at 150-370°C to obtain a wide variety of hardness values and mechanical properties as indicated in the accompanying table.
Tempering in the range 425-565°C is to be avoided because of reduced impact resistance and corrosion resistance. Tempering in the range 590-675°C results in lower hardness (the product become machinable) and high impact resistance.
If welding is necessary pre-heat at 250°C and follow welding with a full anneal. Grade 420 filler will give a high hardness weld (although not as high as the 440C), but 309 or 310 will produce soft welds with higher ductility.
In the annealed condition this grade is relatively easily machined; approximately the same as for high speed steel. Chips are tough and stringy so chip breakers are important. If these grades are hardened machining becomes more difficult and probably impossible.
Typical applications include:
- Rolling element bearings
- Valve seats
- High quality knife blades
- Surgical instruments
AISI 660 / UNS S17400 / 17-4 PH
17-4 stainless steel bar, also known as UNS S17400, 17-4 PH and Grade 630, is one of the original precipitation hardened grades developed in the 50's. Primarily comprised of 17% chromium, 4% nickel, 4% copper, with the balance being iron. There are also trace amounts of manganese, phosphorus, sulfur, silicon, columbium (or niobium) and tantalum. Stainless Steel 17-4 PH delivers an excellent combination of oxidation and corrosion resistance. Other characteristics include high strength, toughness, and quality mechanical properties at temperatures up to 600° F. Engineers and designers frequently choose Stainless Steel 17-4 PH due to its high strength and superior corrosion resistance when compared to many other stainless steels.
Stainless Steel 17-4 PH can be forged, welded and formed. Machining may be formed in the solution-annealed state, or in the final heat treat condition. Desired mechanical properties such as ductility and strength can be achieved through heating the material at various temperatures.
Corrosion Resisting Alloy AMS 5643
Chemical Composition Limits
|Weight %||C||Si||Mn||P+S max||Cr||Ni||Cb + Ta||Cu|
|AMS 5643||0.07 max||1.0 max||1.0 max||0.04 P 0.03 S||15.5 / 17.5||3.0 / 5.0||5 x C / 0.45||3.0 / 5.0|
|AISI 630||0.07 max||1.0 max||1.0 max||0.04 P 0.03 S||15.5 / 17.5||3.0 / 5.0||0.15 / 0.45||3.0 / 5.0|
Industries that use 17-4 PH include:
- Food processing
- General metal working
- Paper industries
- Air spray guns
- Boat fittings
- Dental components
- Golf club heads
- Load cells
- Molding dies
- Nuclear waste casks
- Precision rifle barrels
- Pressure sensor diaphragm
- Propeller shafts
- Pump impeller shafts
- Sailboat self steering systems
- Turbine blades
Combines excellent corrosion resistance, high strength/hardness, low temperature hardening and good fabricating characteristics.
AISI - 446 / UNS - S44600 / DIN - 1.4749
Alloy 446 is a ferritic, heat resisting, stainless chromium steel. Alloy 446 has extremely good resistance to reducing sulphurous gases, as well as very good resistance to oxidation in air. Alloy 446 also has good resistance to oil-ash corrosion and resistance to molton copper, lead and tin.
Chemical Composition Limits
|Alloy 446||0.20 max||0.5||0.8||0.030 max||0.015 max||26.5||0.2|
Alloy 446 is available as Bar (Round), Tube, Pipe.
- ASTM A 276
- UNS S44600
- QQ S 763
- ASTM 446-1
- En 1.4749
- DIN X 18 CrN28
- SS 2322